Description of alimentary tract aspects that can affect nanoparticle uptake
The alimentary tract is a highly complex system that is composed of numerous cell types and environments that have specialized tasks. The aim of the task group is to provide an overview of the various alimentary tract systems and discuss the potential dynamics of nanoparticle interactions within them, to inform the development of appropriate analytical methods for characteristics of nanoparticles release and fate in the gut alimentary tract.The charge of Task Group 2 is as follows:
- Provide an overview the physical, chemical, physiologic, and anatomic context of the alimentary tract including retention times and consider structures and aspects that may have a specific influence on transport, transitions, and uptake of nanoparticles.
- Discuss anatomy and physiology along the alimentary tract lining in relation to nanomaterial uptake likelihood such as the mucosal lining and cell specializations (villi, Peyers patches, M-cells etc)
- Discuss physico-chemical factors of the gut that affect aggregation/agglomeration and dissolution transitions of nanoparticles (pH, redox, temperature, enzymes, surfactants, etc).
- Discuss generic aspects of lumen content and composition (e.g. insoluble fiber, bacteria, large particles, etc) and specific aspects that may influence nanoparticle characteristics and properties (opsonization, corona formation and dynamics)
- Consider variation in
a. Physiological state (age, disease, hormonal status, etc)b. Phenotypic variation
Task Group 2 will address issues also addressed to some degree by Task Groups 1, 3, and 5, and is encouraged to coordinate with these task groups. Some experts may choose to participate in more than one task group.